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Saturday, 15 March 2014

Memorabilia 2014: The Memory Book

Every year, students publish a Memory Book named 'Memorabilia' on the Annual Day of the Department of English (Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University) when the final year students are bid formal farewell. These students edit a booklet - which carries various creative & critical writings of students, along with message of the Head of the Department (attached below this Memorabilia on this blogpost) and other information. Have a look at Memorabilia 2013-14:


From the Desk of the Head of the Department: Prof. Dilip P. Barad
Dilip Barad

Dear Friends,


There is always a curious feeling at the end of the academic year. It makes my heart a bit saddened to see that the people with whom you shared so many minutes, hours, days, weeks and months are going to depart! At the same time, it feels heart with joy, happiness, hope and optimism – these young people are going to make the corners of the world, wherever they will go, a bit brightening and beautiful. J

The fifteen students, who are passing out in April 2014, are full of talent and marvelous capabilities to work wonders in the world. They all have shown the spark within them, the glimpse of the sparkle, which illuminated time and again, during last two years, feels my heart with optimism about their future career. It gives confidence to see that wherever, in what-so-ever direction they will travel, they are bound towards the destination, which stands to greet them in the arms of success and happiness. J

I would like to mention a few names who worked so hard, sparing their personal times from learning, to see that some of the traditions and conventions of the Department of English are carried out smoothly.

The Library – which is the backbone and life blood of academic institution was very efficiently taken care of by Bhumi Vajani and Kashmiraba Jadeja. Without their dedication and sincerity, no students, research scholars and teachers would have been able to make use of library resource.
The small but beautiful vicinity surrounding the Department building is pleasing to eyes only because of the tree plantations and the care taken by Nidhi Kunvarani, Bhavana Baraiya and Vibhuti Bhatt. They organized two One-Day Gardening events. The  Memory-Tree Plantation and Tree-Guards for protection was planned and effectively carried out by all the students under their guidance. J

The Notice Board is the mirror of the culture and tradition of the academic institute. The ideas shared on the Notice Board reflect the intellectual thinking capacities of the teachers and students homed in the building.  It also is the space to represent students’ creativity, innovation and ingeniousness. It also is the space were history of the events where students’ participated and performed to give good name to the Department and the University is documented in form of photographs. This space was very well managed by Deepti Joshi. She took meticulous care and consideration in managing the space for creativity, innovative ideas and information sharing. L

One of the unique features of our Department is Daily Schedule. The students get an open stage to speak, to share, to express, to converse with the class on the topics of their interest, on their creative writings, on opinions they build on contemporary issues / events, their reviews on books, movies, websites, also a platform to sing songs, to recite poems . . . and whatever talent they have to display. This is considered as very important daily activity where, in real sense, a lot of learning happens in terms of gaining self-confidence and improving the level of self-esteem. It also helps in identifying the real self. Hetalba Gohil and Vibhuti Bhatt administered this activity to the best of their capacities. But for a few days, when I was out of town for some academic extension and on the days of extra lectures, where in this activity faced some hiccups and bumpy road, it was quite well planned throughout the year. L

As the Department makes extensive use of Information and Communication Technology in teaching and learning process, it requires a dedicated team of students to take care of projectors, sound systems, laptops and PCs in language lab. Yashpalsinh Gohil, Pratipalsinh Chudasama, Devendra Joshi and Deepti Joshi tried their best to see that things ran smoothly whenever technological tools were required. During the visit of Language Lab by school children, they took great care with the help of Heeral Bhatt, Bhavna Baraiya, Hitesh Parmar, Saryu Baraiya, Sejal Vaghela and others to see that all the systems ran efficiently. J

Annual Academic Picnic is yet another event, which is a part of the tradition of Department. It gives opportunity to students to understand the milieu in which we are living, breathing, learning and growing. All geographical locations, the temples, the forts, hill-top shrines, forest etc have its unique feature. This time students under the leadership of Devendra Joshi and Yashpalsinh Gohil planned the picnic to places like Ghela Somnath, Minal Devi Shrine, Hingolgadh Nature Interpretation Centre, Sarangpur Hanumanji Temple and Kundal Swaminarayan Temple. It was yet another memorable day! J

It was great to see that students very actively participated in Teachers’ Day, Navratri Day and in celebration of Birthdays’ of all the students. This year Avani Dave and Kashmiraba Jadeja quite ably managed all these celebrations.

Project work is an integral part of academics at Post-Graduate level. It was great to see that Aneri Thakar and the group of students (Devendra Joshi, Pratipalsinh Chudasama and Deepti Joshi) did quite a good work in Project on ELT. It is expected that more of such research projects are done by students in future. J

Amidst all the works, activities and events, there was one very creative project undertaken by Prakruti Bhatt. She has a beautiful skill in painting murals. Murals, which are very cost effective – with the help of earthen things as pigments, she can paint murals, which are very attractive and give wonderful looks to the walls of Classrooms and Offices of the Department. Under her aegis, Hirva Vora, Deepti Joshi and Heenaba Zala (Visiting Faculty) worked on several holidays, Saturday and Sundays to beautify walls of the classrooms of the Department. The Department will always remain grateful to Prakruti and all those who helped her in this work. This is one of the most memorable gifts ever given by the students as a part of their gratitude to the Alma Mater. The images of these murals are beautifying the front page of this Memorabilia 2013-14. J J J

It would be injustice to the talent of Yashpalsinh Gohil - in his technological expertise, especially, in editing videos, if he is not specially mentioned here. He has done wonderful work in editing Kalayatra, Learning through Video Resources and Dr. Kalra-Poet’s video, which are uploaded on YouTube. He had potential to contribute a lot to the Department but because of his personal responsibilities, he was not able to spare enough time. And that’s the real regret for the Department! L

Last but not the least; I am thankful to Hirva Vora for the hard work done for this Memorabilia 2013-14. She maintained records of all the activities undertaken by students, throughout the year, documented every bit and piece of information and went on reminding students to contribute their creativity for this Memorabilia. All the credit for the good things that you find in this Memorabilia goes to her. J

On behalf of Department of English, I am heartily thankful to all these students for painstaking efforts that they have made to see that the name of the Department shines bright in the academia of Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University. J

I, heartily, wish best wishes to all the students. May their smart work and appropriate attitude help them to climb the ladder of success!
It is in the success of the students, that Department finds its success,
It is in the achievement of the students, that Department finds its achievement,
It is in the realization of their dreams, that Department realizes its dreams.

I, hopefully, look forward to the new students to carry on with these traditions and conventions of the Department and make it better wherever they find a space for improvement. J

Oh! Times! Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive,
But to be young was very heaven! (William Wordsworth)
~ Dilip Barad
14 March 2014


Friday, 14 February 2014

Teaching at Department of CLL - North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon

(This post will be updated with my experience of visiting Department of Comparative Language and Literature, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon as UGC Fellow within a few days)

All students of Semester 2 (CLL-NMU-J) are requested to take these online evaluation test:
Test 1: CALL & Web Tools: Questions 1 to 16
Test 2: CALL & Web Tools: Questions 17 to 50
Test 3: Language Laboratory: Questions 51 to 65
Test 4: Language Laboratory: Questions 66 to 75
Test 5: Testing & Evaluation: Questions 76 to 101

Wednesday, 5 February 2014

The Sense of an Ending: Julian Barnes: Teacher Resource & Worksheet

·        While reading the novel, keep following points in your ‘memory’:
·        Title of the Novel – the Sense of an Ending.
o   The Ending seems to be that of the old man Anthony Webster who is near the ‘end’ of his journey of life. He ponders – feels nostalgic about the ‘past’. As humans near their end, they crave more for their youthful days. Santiago of ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ also dreams of lions, his fist-fight of younger days and of Manolin when he quite feeble and near his end. . . thus you can illustrate examples of memory reconstruction of past events from the novel.
o   But, that is not the sense which title conveys. It is part truth. The other part of the sense of an ending is presented in this quote: “You get towards the end of life – no, not life itself, but of something else: the end of any likelihood of change in that life.” (Page 86). Something is ending, in a sense, that it is changing; taking new shape; developing new understanding; reaching to newer perspective; some dawning of new understanding – not about the outside world, but that of self – self-revelation
o   Apart from this, there are two lives ending in suicide in the novel. That of Robson and Adrian. It leads into the debate on the issue of suicide – issue of eros and thanatos.
·        The beginning of the novel: novel begins with a kind hazy, vague, blurred fast moving scenes in the beginning of a movie – like shiny wrist (it gets clear later on page no. 78 – “I thought of my inner wrist looking shiny, of my shirt sleeve furled to the elbow.”); steam rising from a wet sink as a hot frying pan (it gets clear on page 23); gouts of sperm circling a plughole (it gets clear on page 68); river rushing nonsensically upstream (it gets clear on page 72); bathwater long gone cold behind a locked door (it gets clear on page 34.)
o   The scenes in the school classroom and discussion on:
o   Unrest during the reign of King Henry the Eighth in England > novel ends with the word ‘unrest’ > the word recurs 7 times in the novel.
o   Eros and Thanatos
o   First World War
o   Philosophy: “I can’t know what it is that I don’t know.”
o   Robson’s suicide
o   History: lies of victorious or self-delusion of the defeated – memories of those who are neither defeated nor victorious
·        We have discussed today (4th Feb 2014) about:
o   Anthony Webster’s affair with Veronica Mary Elizabeth Ford
o   Weekend visit to Kent > Fords class consciousness > Father Mr. Ford and Son Jack > curious behaviour of Mrs. Sarah Ford > Kitchen > breakfast of eggs > hot pan in wet sink > waving hand at waist height by Sarah
o   Their breakup > stagnation disliked by Veronica > Tony is peaceable with stagnation > Veronica calls his attitude ‘cowardly’ > Tony considers himself ‘peaceable’ > letter from her mother Mrs. Sarah (letter non-existent, only memory)
o   Letter from Adrian (letter non-existent, only memory)> about his ‘going out’ and affair with Veronica > Tony warns against Veronica’s dumping, virginity, ‘damage’ etc in reply letter to Adrian
o   Completes his studies > long vacation in States for 6 months > Affair with Annie, and then to separate without recrimination or blame >‘easy come, easy go’> meantime Adrain commits suicide > he remains unaware
·        Comes back home > letters from Alex > about suicide of Adrian > interesting debate on the idea of Suicide: “philosophically self-evident that suicide was every free person’s right: a logical act when faced with terminal illness or senility (medical suicide - euthanasia; a heroic one when faced with torture or the avoidable deaths of others (Soldiers, warriors rush on the battlefield); a glamorous one in the fury of disappointed love (Romeo-Juliet etc) . . . or spiritual suicides (people taking samathis > living people buried > or suicide is ‘knowingly walk towards death’ and embrace it with deliberate attempt to kill oneself (like Bhagat Singh or Swami Vivekanand).
o   Adrian had explained his reasoning (for suicide): that life is a gift bestowed without anyone asking for it; that the thinking person has a philosophical duty to examine both the nature of life and the conditions it comes with; and that if this person decides to renounce the gift no one asks for, it is a moral and human duty to act on the consequences of that decision.
o   Tony’s marriage with Margaret > her remarrying restaurant man > daughter Susan > her two children > Tony retires > does work of charity for Hospital distributing and recommending books > waiting for his turn . . .
o   Part one ends with: “And that’s a life, isn’t it? Some achievements and some disappointments. It’s been interesting to me, though I wouldn’t complain or be amazed if others found it less so. Maybe, in a way, Adrian knew what he was doing. Not that I would have missed my own life for anything, you understand. I survived. “He survived to tell the tale”—that’s what people say, don’t they? History isn’t the lies of the victors, as I once glibly assured Old Joe Hunt; I know  that now. It’s more the memories of the survivors, most of whom are neither victorious nor defeated.
·        In part 2 of the move, we have seen:
o   how many things he narrated from his memory turn out to be real/true
o   how Julian Barnes uses memory-narration of Tony to exemplify the theory of deconstruction > which also resemble Post-modernism
o   how the words like ‘memory’, ‘damage’, ‘unrest, ‘history’ etc are revisited to give deeper significance (Ref: Ferdinand de Saussure’s Sign>Signifier>Signified; Derrida’s ‘trace of meaning, decentering meaning, differAnce, free play of meaning etc)
o   Quest for Adrian’s diary for Tony is like King Arthur’s Knight’s quest for Holy Grail > when it is found > what happens?
o   how the narrative turns out to be thriller with some secrets, suspense to be uncovered > and a shocking surprise!
o   How can we reconstruct entire narrative as an objective reader and what difference does it make from than of memory-narrative of Tony?

·        Please give your responses to these points in the comments below this blog:
o   What is the meaning of phrase ‘Blood Money’ in Veronica’s reply email?
o   How do you decipher the equation: b = s – v x/+ a1 or a2 + v + a1 X s = b?
o   Adrian’s diary is willed to Tony by Sarah Ford. How come Sarah Ford owned it? Why was it in the possession of Veronica?
o   Was the mentally retarded middle aged ‘Adrian’, Tony’s friend who did not commit suicide and was suffering from trauma and thus gone mad, and was living with hidden identity?
o   How was Veronica related to Adrian, the one suffering in care-in-the-community?
o   Do you see any missing block – some dot which is not getting connected with the whole or dot missing to get full sense of the novel - in the plot of this psychological thriller?
o   Do you see any possible reason in the suicide of Adrian Finn?
o   In the light of new revelations, how do you read character of Veronica? Instinctive, manipulative, calculating, stubborn, haughty, sacrificial, trustworthy, good Samaritan?
o   What do you mean by Unreliable Narrator? Is Tony Webster classifiable as Unreliable Narrator? 
Study Questions ‘The Sense of an Ending’:
1.      The novel in two parts, narrates almost similar events but from different perspectives. Surprisingly, perspectives are from Tony Webster’s conscious memory-recollection. Make an attempt to tell the story in linear narrative including events from both the parts of ‘The Sense of an Ending’.
2.      "History is that certainty produced at the point where the imperfections of memory meet the inadequacies of documentation." How far can you agree with this definition of Adrian? Justify you answer with reference to your reading of ‘The Sense of an Ending’.
3.      Discussion with Old Joe Hunt, the teacher in school. Pg 4-5 (something happened), pg 10-11 (can’t know-don’t know, history of historians, pg 16-17 (lies of victory, onion, memory – documentation), pg 56 (neither victorious, nor defeated)
4.       “The question of subjective versus objective interpretation, the fact that we need to know the history of the historian in order to understand the version that is being put in front of us.” Do you agree? Give substantial illustrations from ‘The Sense of an Ending’.
5.      Explain how through the memory of Tony Webster, Julian Barnes justifies the universal truth that ‘one cannot know what one does not know’.
6.      “History isn’t the lies of the victors . . . It’s more the memories of the survivors, most of whom are neither victorious nor defeated.” Justify this view of Tony Webster with the help of your reading of ‘The Sense of an Ending’. (Qtd. From pg 56)     
7.      “You still don’t get it. You never did, and you never will. So stop even trying”. Justify with reference to the universal reality that Anthony Webster faces about seeing, perceiving and understanding events of real life in Julian Barnes’s ‘The Sense of an Ending’
8.      “Julian Barnes's Booker-longlisted novella is a meditation on ageing, memory and regret.” Justine Jordan
a.       Pg. 80 – In email to Veronica Tony: “. . . one of the differences between youth and age: when we are young, we invent different futures for ourselelves; when we are old, we invent different pasts for others.
b.      Pg. 81 – nostalgia = feeling of regret and guilt
c.       Pg 105 – the memory becomes a thing of shreds and patches. It’s a bit like the black bo aeroplanes carry to record what happens in a crash. If nothing goes wrong, the tape erases itself. So if you do crash, it’s obvious why you did; if you don’t, then the log of your journey is much less clear.
9.      “It would be a mistake to dismiss this as a mere psychological thriller. It is in fact a tragedy, like Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw, which it resembles.” Anita Brookner
10.  (Governess tries to save kids from haunting memory of sexually abused children in form of ghost visitation – ultimate death of Miles, the boy – debate on the real existence of Ghost or mere representation of haunting memory)
11.  It's a book about history and how we recall events.” Robin Leggett
12.  The Sense of an Ending, fittingly, deals with grave existential questions.”   A. J. Kirby
a.       (the theme of suicide: Two suicides – Robson and Adrian Finn. Pg 17 – Robson’s suicide. Pg 47-49 – Adrian Finn’s suicide)
13.  “Mr. Barnes plays with the maxim that it’s better to regret the things you have done than the things you haven’t, and thus rages against living life complacently.” A. J. Kirby
14.  “The Sense of an Ending” looks at the ways in which people distort or tailor the past in an effort to mythologize their own lives. - Michiko Kakutani.
15.  Put your argument in light of Roland Barthes views: ‘Myth converts history into nature. And the task of the mythographer is to rediscover the element of history (truth-fact-past) that motivates the myth, to elicit what is specific to a given time and place, asking what interests are served by the naturalization of particular convictions and values.’
16.  The Sense of an Ending is a short book, but not a slight one. In it Julian Barnes reveals crystalline truths that have taken a lifetime to harden. He has honed their edges, and polished them to a high gleam.”- Liesl Schillinger
17.  ‘Damage’ recurs as a motif in the novel. Who do you think is ‘damaged’ and who is the ‘damager’?
a.       Damage : the letter written by Tony to Adrain and Veronica
b.      It damages Veronica’s relation with Adrain
c.       Perhaps, leads Adrain to meet Sarah Ford > their affair
d.      Sarah’s pregnancy > which may have lead to Adrain Finn’s suicide!
e.       The child, names Adrain is born with metal retardness > damage caused by suicide of Adrain to Sarah while she is pregnant > or her middle-aged pregnancy
f.       The letter damages several lives > Veronica, Adrain, Sarah and young Adrain
18.  “Plot is not the main point; character and life are Barnes’ focus.” - Whispering Gums
a.       It would be injustice to Barnes if we say that the novel is plotless or poorly constructed plot. It has a beginning, middle and the end. He is able to pull readers towards climax and the effect of peripeteia and anagnorisis leads to the catastrophe – the final revealation of the identity of 40 years old abnormal Adrian helps in holding on the plot.
b.      And yet, the telling of life, the history, the memory seen through a particular character is very important in this novel.
c.       At times, the plot seem to suffer because of the character’s meditating memory and nostalgic hindsight on past life.
19.  “The book’s plot reads like that of a thriller paperback: full of vengeful ex-girlfriends, youth suicide and illicit sex.” Explain. (Geoff Mak)
20.  “Eros and Thanatos . . . Sex and death. . . Or love and death, if you prefer. The erotic principle, in any case, coming into conflict with the death principle. And what ensues from that conflict.” How far this statement encircles the central theme of the novel The Sense of an Ending’. (Key: First explain concept of Eros and Thanatos and then illustrate from the text – love and suicide incident – and conflict in the memory of narrator)
21.  The Beginning of the novel. Write a critique on the beginning of the novel.
a.       “The argument in both the beginning and end of the book,” said Barnes, “is about where responsibility lies. And to what extent something like a suicide is entirely the responsibility of the person who has done it, or is there a whole chain of responsibility. And there usually is.”[1]
22.  The Title – ‘The Sense of an Ending’.
23.  Discussion on ‘History’ in school. Write a critique on the classroom scene where teacher and students discuss ‘History’.
24.  The Ending of ‘The Sense of an Ending’: Psychological thriller, suspense, the group of mentally retarded young people in 30s > Initially, Tony cannot see (You just don’t get it, do you? But then you never did – Veronica) the features of Adrian in one of the young man > suddenly realizes > realization dawn on him > yet another time ‘did not get it right > thought him to be Veronica and Adrian’s son > the truth, the secret is revealed, rather casually > he is ‘Adrian, son of Sarah & brother of Veronica > Tony joins the dots – blood money as per Veronica, Sarah’s 500 pounds for the happiness she had with Adrian, Verrocnica sacrifices her happiness and takes care of mentally retarded Adrian, veronica as instinctive or manipulative (rather who is calculative and manipulative), all his allegations for Veronica and Adrian came to be true for his own character, not only his ‘words’ in the letter to Adrian came ‘life’, but what he said and thought and memorized as true history of survivor, proved to be limited interpretation of the events, it rather mirrored Tony’s true self to himself – leads to the deep introspection about oneself, when one passes judgements on others.
25.  Prose style: “Elegant, witty and playful, and he often employs techniques associated with postmodern writing - unreliable narrators, a self-conscious linguistic style, an intertextual blending of different narrative forms - which serve to foreground the process of literary creation, the gap between experience and language, and the subjectivity of 'truth' and 'reality”.
26.  Unreliable narrator: “Was this their exact exchange? Almost certainly not. Still, it is my best memory of their exchange.” (Pg 19)
27.  In the introduction to the Folio Society edition of the novel he wrote a couple of years ago, he called it ‘the most perfectly deployed example of the unreliable narrator’, and explained its method thus: ‘The storyteller isn’t up to the level of his own story; he is a bumbler obliged to convey an intrigue of operatic passion which he himself only partially understands. . . . ’. In light of this remark, give your critique of the narrative style in ‘The Sense of an Ending’.
28.  “The point is not about the ‘ugliness of letter’ which causes ‘damage’; it is rather about what he ‘thinks’ about it and how he ‘memorizes’ it”. Explain with reference to your reading of ‘The Sense of an Ending’.
29.  ‘It is not about what we ‘do’, it is about how we ‘remember’ what we have done?’. Illustrate with reference to the novel ‘The Sense of an Ending’.
30.  How is the so-called ‘ugly letter’ mentioned in Part One of the novel? How does the real letter presented in Part Two to the readers prove the point of ‘adequacy of document’ and ‘imperfections of memory’ in the history?
31.  “Real literature was about psychological, emotional and social truth as demonstrated by the actions and reflections of its protagonists; the novel was about character developed over time.” How does this line from the novel illustrate character development of ‘Anthony Webster’ in ‘The Sense of an Ending’?
32.   Julian Barnes reference to ‘accumulation’ and ‘responsibility’ is an attempt to secularize Hindu Karmic philosophy in rational language to make it understandable to the generation of 21st century. How far do you agree with it.
33.   Barnes dramatizes this chain of responsibility against a backdrop of class difference.[2] : Justify your answer. (See answer in ‘Class Difference print out or in the interview on this weblink)
1.      Julian Barnes centre in not to discuss ‘class difference’ or ‘culture’. They are rather shifted on the periphery of his discourse that centers on ‘memory’, ‘history’, ‘time’ and ‘quest for truth’. Illustrate with your reading of ‘The Sense of an Ending’.
* Literature - mirror - photograph - x-ray image - axe to break frozen self - dry coconut    
a. Cultural degradation – in form of teenage affairs, sexual behaviour, pregnant girls in school, teenage-adult suicides, easy-come-easy-go-relations, divorce etc
b.      Class difference – Fords vs Webster & the damage caused by such behaviour
c.       Barnes’s centre in not these issues of British Middle Class culture or society. Why?
d.      What does the text do as a part of philosophical thinking?
e.       It centers on ‘why people lie – falsehood; question of truth.
f.       Here it is not the truth or falsehood of others or told to others; it is rather the ones told to the ‘self’.
g. Why we memorize false facts? Why we construct convenient memory?


Which of the following book cover suits well with the central theme of the novel:

Monday, 27 January 2014

Research: The Review of Related Literature (The Literature Review)

1. A focused reading with a specific purpose2. WHAT IS A LITERATURE REVIEW? • Many students are instructed, as part of their research program, to perform a literature reviewliterature review, without understanding what it is. Read more: Sources essential for LT • Sources are generally described as primary, secondary, or tertiary. • Primary: Primary sources are “materials that you are directly writing about, the raw materials of your own research.” • Secondary: Secondary sources are “books and articles in which other researchers report the results of their research based on (their) primary data or sources.” • Tertiary: Tertiary sources are “books and articles based on secondary sources, on the research of others.” – Tertiary sources synthesize and explain the work of others and might be useful early in your research, but they are generally weak support for your own arguments… at times they are challenged in your argument!4. What is Literature Review? • A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. • Occasionally researchers are asked to write one as a separate assignment (sometimes in the form of an annotated bibliography), but more often it is part of the introduction to an essay, research report, or also a chapter in M.Phil/Ph.D.thesis.5. What is the purpose ofWhat is the purpose of Literature Review?  • Purpose - to convey what knowledge and ideaswhat kn owledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and whathave been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are.their strengths and weaknesses are. • As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding conceptdefined by a guiding concept (e.g., our research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). • It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries6. What is ‘not’ Literature Review? – Not - chronological catalog of all of the sources, but an evaluation, integrating the previous research together, – But - it is to explain how it integrates into the proposed research program. All sides of an argument must be clearly explained, to avoid bias, and areas of agreement and disagreement should be highlighted. • Not - collection of quotes and paraphrasing from other sources. • But - good literature review should also have some evaluation of the quality and findings of the research.7. Why do a Literature Review? • to identify gapsidentify gaps in the research area • to avoid reinventing the wheelavoid reinventing the wheel • to carry on from where others have alreadycarry on from where others have already completedcompleted • to identify other people working in the sameidentify other people working in the same fieldsfields • to fathom the depth of knowledgefathom the depth of knowledge of your subject area8. Why do LR? • to identify opposing viewsopposing views • to put your work into wider perspectiveput your work into wider perspective • to identify methodsmethods that could be relevant to your project. • to identify seminal worksidentify seminal works in your area • to provide the intellectual context for your own work, enabling you to position your project in relationproject in relation to other work9. Two important objectives of LR:Two important objectives of LR: • Besides enlarging your knowledge about the topic, writing a literature review lets you gain and demonstrate skills in two areas: 1.information seeking: the ability to scan the literature efficiently, using manual or computerized methods, to identify a set of useful articles and books 2.critical appraisal: the ability to apply principles of analysis to identify unbiased and valid studies10. A literature review must doA literature review must do these things:these things: • be organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question we are developing • synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known • identify areas of controversy in the literature • formulate questions that need further research11. Ask yourself questions like these: • What is the specific thesis, problem, or research question that my literature review helps to define? • What type of literature review am I conducting? Am I looking at issues of theory? methodology? policy? quantitative research (e.g. on the effectiveness of a new procedure)? qualitative research (e.g., studies )?12. Ask yourself questions like these: • What is the scope of my literature review? What types of publications am I using (e.g., journals, books, government documents, popular media)? What discipline am I working in (e.g., Engineering, Psychology, Humanities, Pharmacy, Management)? • How good was my information seeking? Has my search been wide enough to ensure I've found all the relevant material? Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material? Is the number of sources I've used appropriate for the length of my paper?13. Ask yourself questions like these: • Have I critically analysed the literature I use? Do I follow through a set of concepts and questions, comparing items to each other in the ways they deal with them? • Instead of just listing and summarizing items, do I assess them, discussing strengths and weaknesses? • Have I cited and discussed studies contrary to my perspective? • Will the reader find my literature review relevant, appropriate, and useful?14. Ask yourself questions like these about each book or article you include: • Has the author formulated a problem/issue? • Is it clearly defined? Is its significance (scope, severity, relevance) clearly established? • Could the problem have been approached more effectively from another perspective? • What is the author's research orientation (e.g., interpretive, critical science, combination)? • What is the author's theoretical framework (e.g., psychological, developmental, feminist)?15. Ask yourself questions like these about each book or article you include: • Has the author evaluated the literature relevant to the problem/issue? Does the author include literature taking positions she or he does not agree with? • In a research study, how good are the basic components of the study design (e.g., population, intervention, outcome)? • How accurate and valid are the measurements? Is the analysis of the data accurate and relevant to the research question? Are the conclusions validly based upon the data and analysis?16. Ask yourself questions like these about each book or article you include: • How does the author structure the argument? Can you "deconstruct" the flow of the argument to see whether or where it breaks down logically (e.g., in establishing cause-effect relationships)? • In what ways does this book or article contribute to our understanding of the problem under study, and in what ways is it useful for practice? What are the strengths and limitations? • How does this book or article relate to the specific thesis or question I am developing?17. Four Examples of Literature Review • Step by Step – drafting LR: Psychology. Systematic arrangement… • Ph.D. Thesis on ELT – Engineering Colleges in Tami . Summarizing… • Example with teacher’s remark on LR. What to do and what not to… • CALL – The best of all examples…18. Web Tools for LR:19. Web Tools helpful in LR: • Bookmarking sites: e.g. • Google Docs – - Prepare a ‘form’ – easy to manage records in auto-generated spread sheet. - Reference: • Read more: • Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination (Published in association with The Open University) Dr. Christopher Hart. • Any book on Research Methodology for respective subjects deals with ‘Review of Literature’. • Cooper, H. (2010). Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis: A Step-By-Step Approach. Los Angeles: Sage. (call number McHenry Stacks H62 C5859) • Machi, L.A. (2009). The Literature Review: Six Steps to Success. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. (call number McHenry Stacks LB1047.3 M33) • Deakin University. (2009). The Literature Review. Geelong, Victoria, Australia: Author. Retrieved 4th September 2009 from the World Wide Web: • The University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center. (2009). Writer's Handbook: Common Writing Assignments: Review of Literature. Madison, Wisconsin: Author. Retrieved 4th September 2009 from the World Wide Web: • Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional And Systematic Techniques (Paperback)by Jill Jesson, Lydia Matheson, Fiona M. Lacey (Sage Pub)21. Works cited:Afolabi, M. (1992) 'The review of related literature in research' International journal of information and library research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 59-66.Bourner, T. (1996) 'The research process: four steps to success', in Greenfield, T. (ed), Research methods: guidance for postgraduates, Arnold, London.Bruce, C. S. (1990) 'Information skills coursework for postgraduate students: investigation and response at the Queensland University of Technology' Australian Academic & Research Libraries, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 224-232.Bruce, C. (1993) 'When enough is enough: or how should research students delimit the scope of their literature review?', in Challenging the Conventional Wisdom in Higher Education: Selected Contributions Presented at the Ninteeth Annual National Conference and Twenty-First Birth . pp. 435-439.Bruce, C. S. (1994) 'Research student's early experiences of the dissertation literature review' Studies in Higher Education, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 217-229.Bruce, C. (1994) 'Supervising literature reviews', in Zuber-Skerritt, O. and Ryan, Y. (eds), Quality in postgraduate education, Kogan Page, London.Bruce, C. S. (1997) 'From Neophyte to expert: counting on reflection to facilitate complex conceptions of the literature review', in Zuber-Skerritt, O. (ed), Frameworks for postgraduate education, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.Caspers, J. S (1998) 'Hands-on instruction across the miles: using a web tutorial to teach the literature review research process' Research Strategies, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 187-197.Cooper, H. M. (1988) 'The structure of knowledge synthesis' Knowledge in Society, vol. 1, pp. 104-126Cooper, H. M. (1989) Integrating research : a guide for literature reviews, 2nd ed, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif. • Leedy, P. D. (1997) Practical research: planning and design, 6th ed, Merrill, Upper Saddle River, N.J.Libutti, P.& Kopala, M. (1995) 'The doctoral student, the dissertation, and the library: a review of the literature' Reference Librarian, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 5-25.Mauch, J. E.& Birch, J. W. (2003) Guide to the successful thesis and dissertation: a handbook for students and faculty, 5th ed, Marcel Dekker, New York.