Wednesday, 10 August 2016

Report on the Use of Technology


Published in:
JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY FOR ELT
A Quarterly Online Journal for Teachers of English
Volume VI                                                                          Number 3                        
July - September 2016
ISSN (Onlime): 2231-4431
Impact Factor (2015): 4.310

Report on the Integration of Technology

Dilip Barad

Prof. and Head, Department of English
Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar (364001) , Gujarat, India.
Phone: 09898272313 / 9427733691
ELTAI Membership No. 30009295; IATEFL Member ID:19674

Introduction

Figure 1: Use and Integration of Technology
It is a truth universally acknowledged, that teaching – learning is incomplete in the 21st century without integration of Information and Communication Technology. No education institute can afford to neglect integration of technology. Yes, you have read it correctly. It is ‘integration’ and not merely ‘use’ of technology. The below given figure (1) makes the difference between the two quite clear. This brief report is all about integration of technology. All of the twelve points mentioned under ‘Technology Integration’ is fulfilled in the practice reported here.

Objectives

  • Higher Goals of Education
    • It’s a university’s job to produce citizens who learn to think for themselves, not just humans who can be programmed to follow someone else’s code.
  • Holly Clark
    • It is imperative that in 2015, students be able to curate, archive and expand on the work they are producing in class.
    • Today’s education must help students authentically learn important digital citizenship lessons.  
    • Education must help students to internalize the core subject as well as vital digital literacy skills such as creating their own digital web presence and learning to effectively and purposefully share their learning with the world.
  • Classify and Reclassify Information
    •          "The new education must teach the individual how to classify and reclassify information, how to evaluate its veracity, how to change categories when necessary, how to move from the concrete to the abstract and back, how to look at problems from a new direction  how to teach himself." (Herbert Gerjuoy)
·         UNESCO: 

Figure 2: UNESCO - Stages of ICT Integration

Institution

This report is about the integration of technology at Post Graduate Department of English, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar, Gujarat. This is State University established in 1969.

Class

The students of post graduate programme of English literature are involved in this project.

Purpose of Using Technology

·         To fulfill the objectives mentioned in ‘Objectives’.
·         Using technology like blog, Google group, slideshare.net, Google sites, digital portfolio, flipped learning is part and parcel of learning at Dept. of English, M K Bhavnagar University
·         All students have to publish their assignments on blog and presentations on slideshare.net Why? So that peer learning happens on its own. Slow learners learn from assignments and presentations of fast learners.
·         Students prepare Digital Portfolio: Why? The Students are strongly encouraged to build digital portfolio to document the four habits of mind:

·        1. Integrative thinking: The ability and habit to recognize relationships among ideas and experiences that are not routinely thought of as related.

·        2. Reflective thinking: The ability and habit of looking back at previous learning and setting those experiences in a new context created by subsequent learning.

·        3. Thinking in Community: The ability and habit of seeking connections between your learning and the learning of others in the class / community.

·       4.  Thinking in context:  The ability and habit of seeking connections between what you learned in college and relating those connections to subjects, debate and discussion in the wider world. (Lorenzo and Ittelson)

Evidence of the use of Technology

Digital Portfolio

·         Also visit this post for online evaluation rubric of Digital Portfolio which is done as self-evaluation, peer-evaluation and teacher evaluation. http://dilipbarad.blogspot.in/2016/02/digital-portfolio.html

Blogs for Teacher Worksheet on Film Screening

·         The use of audio-visual materials in literature classroom is very helpful. An appropriate use must be though-out, otherwise it would fail to fulfill desired objectives. Pedagogically speaking, screening of the films should be followed by student-activities on teacher-worksheet. We used blogs for this purpose. Click here to view some of the teacher worksheet on film screening and read students’ responses / engagement / reactions in the comment section below the post:

Blog Worksheet for Teaching Literature and Critical Theories

·         To engage learners with learning, the teacher used blog worksheet to teach literary texts and critical theories. The students were asked to respond on the blog rather than in pen-paper mode. This helps in building an environment of trust among all learners. This also helps in peer learning as works produced by classmates is visible to all. It also leads to conceptual clarity of literary theories:

Blogs for Assignments and Critical Thinking

·         Here are some of the sample blogs of students reflection on their learning
·         Here are some of the sample blogs on students assignments on their learning

Teacher’s Content Sharing Website

·         We have used Google Site to share additional resources, question banks, core content with students
·         Please have a look at the website: http://dilipbarad.blogspot.in/2013/01/ma-english-study-material-reading.html

Hotpotatoes for Interactive Quiz / Test

·         Quite often Hotpotatoes suit is used to develop interactive quiz.
·         The sample can be viewed here: https://sites.google.com/site/dilipbaraddilipbarad/

Audacity: Sound Editing Software for Listening and Speaking

·         We experimented with this software and used it effectively for Listening and Speaking skills.

Wikieducator as collaborative and content sharing platform

·         We used to use wikieducator for collaboration and content sharing
·         http://wikieducator.org/Dilipbarad: This is user page of Dilip Barad
·         http://wikieducator.org/Aristotle's_Poetics: Here is content sharing page.

Flubaroo: Auto Grading Script plus Google Form

·         For unit end online quiz, we use Google Form. To auto-generate result, we run Flubaroo script. It also helps in sending emails to students with their grades and correct/incorrect itemized analyses.

Presentations by Students (Students’ involvement)

·         Here are some of the sample presentations by students:

Flipped Learning

·         We have successfully experimented with Flipped Learning also. Check this link: https://sites.google.com/site/flippedlearninggtu/think

Ted-Ed Lessons

·         We have also started using http://ed.ted.com/ platform for online learning. Have a look at one of the lessons uploaded by us: http://ed.ted.com/on/HILJky5n
·         More lessons are in pipe line. We have prepared  several such small learning videos. Have a look at playlist on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL5C6B835309FB9771
·         All these short videos are going to be on ed.ted.com

Unit End Online Tests

·         It is usual practice that teaching is followed by Online Tests to check the progress of the learners.
·         Google Form, Hotpotatoes and Flubaroo script are used for the test and autograding.
·         Here are some of the links of such online tests:

Online Rubrics for Self and Peer-Evaluation

·         Online Rubric for the evaluation of Oral Presentaiton:
·         Online Rubric for the evaluation of Written Assignments:
·         Online Rubric for the Review of Language Lab software (Language Lab is one module in the course of ELT and Technology)
·         Online Rubric for the evaluation of Digital Portfolio

Students’ Reaction and Involvement

·         The real mark of integration of technology in education system is not measured on the grounds of what and how of technology used by ‘teacher’. Rather, it is  ‘what students do with technology’ that matters more. The involvement of students in the use of technology in their learning process is very vital. Here, we can see what and how students of last five batches (from 2010 to 2016) have used technology: http://dilipbarad.blogspot.in/2012/04/project-blended-learning-2012.html
·         Many of the above given links also stand in support of involvement of student in the integration of technology. As it is well said that – Until and unless, students do not respond through technology, it is not integration of technology in learning process. It may be ‘use’ of technology by teacher, but cannot be considered as ‘integration’ of technology.’ All the above given links stand in support of how technology is integral part of learning process at Department of English, M.K. Bhavnagar University.
One of the best way to evaluate reaction of students is to compare their performance in ‘real-life’ examinations conducted by University. I mean, rather than going for traditional ‘pre-test, post-test’ analyses of target groups, if we compare their performance in real examinations conducted by University as independent body, we can get real picture of students performance. Well, the students never or rarely used technology at Under Graduate (B.A.) level. They extensively integrated technology at Post Graduate (M.A.) level. These charts displays that almost all students improved their performance in terms of percentage in University exam.

Figure 3: Batch 2010-12 Comparative Chart
Figure 4: Batch 2012-14: Comparative Chart

·          Click here to see more such charts of other batches: http://dilipbarad.blogspot.in/2012/04/project-blended-learning-2012.html
·         By and large, students have responded positively.
o   Students’ response to use of Audio-Visual materials with traditional teaching: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1Kq3Sz7C99Y2LjwAg5i7n-IlwWtC68sdHYqlBcaeyaWw/viewanalytics

Works Cited

Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom:definition, rationale and a call for research. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-14.
Bharati, Prasanna. Retrieved from http://edtechreview.in/trends-insights/insights/1537-how-do-digital-portfolios-help-students
Chikering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. AAHE Bulletin, pp. 3-7.
Educause. (2012, Feb). 7 Things You Should Know About Flipped Classrooms. Retrieved Jan 23, 2016, from Educause.edu: https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7081.pdf
Electronic portfolio. (2016, January 14). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:37, February 4, 2016, fromhttps://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electronic_portfolio&oldid=699858980
Flipped Learning Network (FLN). (n.d.). The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P™. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from Flipped Learning Network: www.flippedlearning.org/definition.
Lane, C. (2007). "The Power of ‘e’: Using e- Portfolios to Build Online Presentation Skills". Innovate 3 (3): 5.
Leamson, R. (2000). Learning as Biological Brain Change. Change, 34-40.
Lorenzo, George and John Ittelson. "Demonstrating and Assessing Student Learning with E-Portfolio." Oct 2005. Educause Learning Initiative. Ed. Diana Oblinger. Educause. Web. 22 March 2016. https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI3003.pdf
Lorenzo, George; Ittelson, John (2005). "An Overview of E-Portfolios" (PDF). Educause. Retrieved 7 June 2014. http://www.edutopia.org
M. van Wesel & A. Prop (2008). "The influence of Portfolio media on student perceptions and learning outcomes" (PDF). Maastricht University
Moon, Jenny. "Guide for Busy Academics No. 4: Learning through reflection". The Higher Education Academy. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
Saulnier, B. (2008). From “Sage on the Stage” to “Guide on the Side” Revisited: (Un)Covering the Content in the Learner-Centered Information Systems Course. EDSIG Proc ISECON, 1-9.
Strivens, Janet (February 2007). "A survey of e-pdp and e-portfolio practice in UK Higher Education" (PDF). Higher Education Academy. Retrieved 7 June2014.
Tagg, J. (2003). The Learning Paradigm College. Bolton: MA: Anker Publishing.
Zimmerman, Eilene (30 June 2012). "Career couch: Showcasing Your Work, in an Online Portfolio"New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2014.