Friday, 23 August 2019

Shitala Saatam - Religion Vs Science; Inoculation Vs Vaccination; non-acceptance of intellectuals

Sitalaa Saatam is the day which we witness the conflict between religion and science. When we observe society, traditions and rituals, we find that we, as society , are still not rational enough to consider either science or religion with authenticity. We fail to argue with religious practice as well with scientific inventions.
On the occasion of such days, we feel the conflict between science and religion in our lived experience.
Say for instance, we have to go for vaccination to save ourselves from the life threatening disease like small pox (શીતળા). We know that શીતળા is under control and is now, not able to kill people or disfigure faces as it used to happen 70 years before. 
And yet, the tradition of not making goddess શીતળા unhappy by making hot food in the homes continue. Such are the fears incepted so deeply in the collective subconscious that it is not possible for rational argument to overcome it.

Let us use such unique days to ponder about the regressive rituals and progressive rational thoughts.

1) Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination 

By Stefan Riedel, MD, PhD

2) Read paper on the claim that India first started to cure smallpox before the West

(Do not miss to read that it was practiced in very small groups and was not able to eradicate the disease as Jenner's vaccination has done in much lesser time. Even with inoculation in practice in India , the disease was widespread and almost uncontrollable. Seeing thing fairly is more important than going ga ga over national pride.)

3) As the concept of worshiping goddess Shitalaa is failing and with thay questions are raised against the practice of eating cold food, the new breed of nationalists have emerged to justify it as practice to overcome deficiency of vitamin B12. See the letter in gujarati.


Before we come to any conclusion on this, we Need to read full research paper on the process of research.

We also have to survey the people who are suffering from deficiency of B12.
I know many who are observing sataam by eating cold food every year and yet they have deficiency of B12 and are taking injections rather than eating cold food.
I know many who are not observing saatam n eat hot food and yet are not suffering from B12 deficiency.
So, such research are not authentic.

Secondly, eating overnight cold roti/ભાખરી / રોટલો / દહીં / માખણ is normal practice in many indian houses. However, people may be suffering from deficiency or may be not. But eating cold food on saatam waa never ever practiced for vitamin b12 is for sure. It was practiced to safeguard from the wrath of શીતળા માં.




4)શીતળા એ પ્રથમ રોગ હતો જે લોકોએ જાતે કરીને અન્ય પ્રકારના ચેપોથી પોતાને ઇનોક્યુલેટ કરીને નિવારવાનો પ્રયત્ન કર્યો હતો; શીતળાનું ઇનોકયુલેશન ભારત માં તેમજ અન્ય દેશો માં વર્ષો થી થતું પરંતુ તેને સામુહિક સ્વીકાર ના હતો. લોકો આ બીમારી થઈ ડરી ને તેને દેવી તરીકે પૂજા અર્ચના કરતા, મંદિરો બનાવતા અને તે દેવી ને ખુશ કરવા ચુલ્હા ઓ ઠંડા રાખતા. આ બધું હજુ પણ પરંપરા ના ભાગરૂપે કરવામાં આવે છે.

લોકો નવા વિચાર કે વર્તન ને સ્વીકારી સકતા નથી. નવો કે અલગ વિચાર આપનાર બૌદ્ધિકો ની મજાક કરવામાં આવતી હતી, આવે છે. તિરુસ્કૃત પણ કરવામાં આવે છે.
આપણે ત્યાં હજુ પણ એવા લોકો છે જે શીતળા ની રસીકરણ તો કરે અને તો પણ એમાં અને એવા વૈજ્ઞાનિક સંશોધનો માં વિશ્વાસ કરવાને બદલે , ધાર્મિક રીત રિવાજો માં વધુ માને અને તેમને વિટામીન B12 ની ઉણપ દૂર કરવા માટે થતી વિધિ સાથે જસ્ટીફાય કરવાનો બાલિશ પ્રયાસ કરે. અરે એવા પણ લોકો છે જે હંમેશા દરેક વસ્તુ ની શોધ ભારત માં જ થઈ છે તેવું માને છે. તે લોકો જુના સમય માં થતા ટીકાકરણ ને રસીકરણ સાથે જોડી ને દલીલ કરતા હોય છે. ટીકાકરણ થી આ રોગ કાબુ માં નહોતો આવી શક્યો અને તેનો ઉપદ્રવ વધતોજ જતો હતો અને એડવર્ડ જેનર ના સંશોધને , તદુપરાંત WHO વર્લ્ડ હેલ્થ organisation ના પ્રયત્નો થી શીતળા ઉપર કાબુ મેળવી શક્યા છે. 
પણ જેમ આજે સામાન્ય પ્રજા ને બૌદ્ધિકો પ્રત્યે ચીડ અને ગુસ્સો છે તેવો ઈંગ્લેન્ડ માં એડવર્ડ જેનર પ્રત્યે અને તેની વેકસિન પ્રત્યે પણ હતો. આ કાર્ટૂન માં તેની મજાક ઉડાડવામાં આવી છે.
source: https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details/collection_image_gallery.aspx?assetId=146958001&objectId=1638225&partId=1



The #cartoon caricatures Edward #Jenner (1749–1823) immunising people against #smallpox, using the #vaccine he created and for which he is best known. Despite the success rate of his experiments using cowpox, Jenner – who trained as a surgeon – was #ridiculed by the #public; this satirical caricature shows people receiving the vaccine and then sprouting cow heads all over their bodies. Nevertheless, Jenner’s smallpox vaccination was eventually widely accepted and 30 years after his death it was mandatory in England and Wales. 
(The cow-pock - or - the wonderful effects of the new inoculation! Hand-coloured etching by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey, 1802. Wellcome Library, London.)

Saturday, 3 August 2019

Saturday, 20 July 2019

Debate on Art and Politics

Literary debate on Art and Politics

Can artist be committed to political party and yet remain faithful to art?
Is it necessary for an artist to be committed to social cause?
Is it possible to exist as an artist committed to politics as well as art?

Party is a 1984 Hindi film directed by Govind Nihalani. The film boasted an ensemble cast of leading art cinema actors of Parallel Cinema,[1] including Vijaya MehtaManohar SinghOm PuriNaseeruddin Shah, and Rohini Hattangadi. It based on the play Party(1976) by Mahesh Elkunchwar. (Wikipedia)

Monday, 15 July 2019

Majoritarianism and Religious Identity

Majoritarianism spreads by fear. The fear that they are the most persecuted religious group. The people are shown fear that they will persecuted if they become minority. They give examples of similar conflicts among religious groups. The fear that minority religious identities will become majority. Thereafter, the life of the majority religious identities will be terrible.
Such people who show fear of religious persecutions do not inform people to stay away from religions but advice to cling steadfastly to their religious identities. This is exactly what is going to do what they are prophesying. 
The only way to stop these religious persecutions is to keep new generations away from religions of any sort. 



Sunday, 14 July 2019

Girish Karnad: The Artist, the Citizen and the Question of Truth

In 2005, in his Nobel Speech, Harold Pinter referred to what he wrote in 1958: 
‘There are no hard distinctions between what is real and what is unreal, nor between what is true and what is false. A thing is not necessarily either true or false; it can be both true and false.’
I believe that these assertions still make sense and do still apply to the exploration of reality through art. So as a writer I stand by them but as a citizen I cannot. As a citizen I must ask: What is true? What is false?
Truth in drama is forever elusive. You never quite find it but the search for it is compulsive. The search is clearly what drives the endeavour. The search is your task. More often than not you stumble upon the truth in the dark, colliding with it or just glimpsing an image or a shape which seems to correspond to the truth, often without realising that you have done so. But the real truth is that there never is any such thing as one truth to be found in dramatic art. There are many. These truths challenge each other, recoil from each other, reflect each other, ignore each other, tease each other, are blind to each other. Sometimes you feel you have the truth of a moment in your hand, then it slips through your fingers and is lost.

If there is any writer in recent past on whom this 'fits in', it is Girish Karnad. The controversies in obituaries offered to him are an example enough to prove the point.

Here are some write-ups written as obituary and videos on the demise of Girish Karnad when he passed away on 10th June 2019.

These are views against Girish Karnad:

1. 


4. Saurabh Shah's FB post - Views on Girish Karnad in Hindi:

I agree 100 % with this forwarded post by someone written in Hindi. આપણી તકલીફ એ છે કે ગિરીશભાઈ કરતાં દસગણા ટેલન્ટેડ લોકો આ દેશમાં છે, દરેક ક્ષેત્રમાં છે પણ આપણને લેફ્ટિસ્ટ સેકયુલર મીડિયા તરફથી એવા જ ટેલેન્ટેડ લોકો વિશે સતત કહેવાતું રહે છે જેઓ પોતે વામપંથી વિચારોના પુરસ્કર્તા હોય. આ જ લોકો અત્યાર લગી અવૉર્ડઝ, સરકારી માનપાન-સુવિધાઓ તથા પદ-પુરસ્કારોને લાયક ગણાતા. આને લીધે non leftist and non secular ટેલેન્ટેડ લોકો હાંસિયામાં ધકેલાઇ જતા એટલું જ નહીં હાંસીપાત્ર પણ ગણાતા. મરનાર વિશે સાચું જ લખવાનું એ તો આપણને આવા જ ટેલેન્ટેડ પત્રકારો વિનોદ મહેતા અને ખુશવંત સિંહે શીખવ્યું છે. R I P Girishbhai 🙏🏻
Forwarded post👇
सवेरे टीवी खोला तो देखा तो पता चला कि गिरीश कर्नाड मर गया।
न्यूजचैनलों पर यह भी याद दिलाया जा रहा है कि इस देश ने गिरीश कर्नाड को पद्मश्री, पद्मभूषण, साहित्य अकादमी, ज्ञानपीठ सम्मान से सम्मानित भी किया था।
लेकिन उन्हीं न्यूजचैनलों द्वारा यह नहीं बताया जा रहा कि इसी गिरीश कर्नाड ने पाकिस्तान परस्त देशद्रोही अरुंधति रॉय के साथ कंधे से कंधा मिलाकर आतंकवादी अफ़ज़ल गुरु की फांसी की सज़ा के खिलाफ बड़ी जोरदार ज़ंग भी लड़ी थी।
न्यूजचैनलों द्वारा यह नहीं बताया जा रहा कि इसी गिरीश कर्नाड ने कर्नाटक के महान योद्धा और अत्यधिक सम्मानित शासक रहे केम्पेगौड़ा के नाम पर बने बंगलुरू एयरपोर्ट का नाम बदलकर टीपू सुल्तान एयरपोर्ट कर देने की मांग का अभियान इसलिए चलाया था क्योंकि उसके अनुसार केम्पेगौड़ा और छत्रपति शिवा जी तथा महाराणा प्रताप से भी बड़ा और महान योद्धा टीपू सुल्तान था। गिरीश कर्नाड की इस कुकर्मी मांग के खिलाफ कर्नाटक की जनता सड़कों पर उतर आई थी और हज़ारों की संख्या में उसके पुतले फूंक कर, उसके घर पर अद्धे गुम्मों की जमकर बरसात की थी। परिणामस्वरूप इस गिरीश कर्नाड को हाथ पांव जोड़कर माफी मांगनी पड़ी थी।
न्यूजचैनलों द्वारा यह नहीं बताया जा रहा कि JNU में हुई "भारत तेरे टुकड़े होंगे" और "भारत की बरबादी तक ज़ंग चलेगी ज़ंग चलेगी" सरीखी देश विरोधी नारेबाजी में नामजद और गिरफ्तार हुए कन्हईय्या कुमार के खिलाफ दर्ज मुकदमे के विरोध में यही गिरीश कर्नाड बंगलौर में धरना प्रदर्शन अनशन की नंगई पर उतारू हो गया था।
न्यूजचैनल ये नहीं बता रहे कि गिरीश कर्नाड गौमांस भक्षण का इतना बड़ा समर्थक था कि गौमांस खाने की वकालत खुलकर करता था और गौमांस की सार्वजनिक दावतों में चीफ गेस्ट बनकर जाता था।
अब आज इस गिरीश कर्नाड के मरने पर मैं कैसे शोक मनाऊं, कैसे श्रद्धांजलि दूं.?


These views are in favour of Girish Karnad:


5. A few obituaries in Gujarati news papers.

6. Girish Karnad was more than just an accomplished actor and a celebrated playwright. He was a strong public voice who decried religious fundamentalism and defended freedom of expression. He passed away in Bengaluru on June 10 at the age of 81.
https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=646642815816861&id=268114290336384

#Girish_Karnad
This line in the tweet by Prime Minister @narendramodi is a #tribute in truer sense to artists like Girish Karnad.
Karnad's implied political satires on Nehru or Indira's style of governance neither turned him into the #Harold_Pinter of India, nor his social satires termed him as the #Arther_Miller or #Tennesse_Williams of India, nor did his retellings of myth categorised him with the postcolonial insight of #Rushdie. . . And yet, being a versatile artist, he was not all lost to the socio-cultural-religious-political power.
He was never a #Lost_Leader like #William_Wordsworth on whom Browning has to write these lines:
"Just for a handful of silver he left us,
Just for a ribbon to stick in his coat—"
Those who
'Lived in his (Karnad's) mild and magnificent eye,
Learned his great language, caught his clear accents,
Made him our pattern to live and to die' will not have Browninging-like frustrations from Karnad.
If 'Shakespeare was of us, Milton was for us,
Burns, Shelley, were with us,—they watch from their graves!'
then, Karnad, too, is in the galaxy of these stars.
Whenever India is in the fen of stagnant waters, Karnad will be there, shining bright, to guide the lost caravan!
If you are on FB, you can read comments under this post.





Wednesday, 27 March 2019

Why are We so Scared of Robots / AIs?

Why are we afraid of robots?
Why are we scared of Artificial Intelligence?
Even though robots and AI are products of human imagination & intelligence, the human creative imagination loves to tell stories where in we are warned against Robots / AIs. Why? Why our stories about robots and AI scare us? Is there some deep truths in these narratives? or are they useless apprehensions?
If we look at the stories told to us, we find that we were always warned or scared or told to be afraid of some monsters. The fear of wolves was always narrated to the sheep. The form of wolf keeps on changing. The wolves of the Aesop's fables turns into human-monsters in mythology. The great epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata scared us against crossing the 'Laxman-Rekha' or else be ready to face the Ravanas. The Kansas, the Duryodhanas, the Dushashanas - are remembered time and again so that we remain perpetually scared. In the industrial era, the machines run on electricity were monsters. In the digital era, robots run on artificial intelligence are here to scare us.
Why?
Is it so that the fear of monster strengthen and alerted against impending danger and so we survive today? Is there any direct correlation between fear and survival instinct? Does survival instinct strengthen with fear mechanics?
If so, we should keep on telling stories to be scared of, the stories of monsters. Let the form of monster keep on changing with the advancement in science and technology. Let us move away from the monster of the hell and face the monster of the laboratory. Let us tell the stories to scare us to find a way out.
After all, there is nothing more human than the will to survive.

Let us see these sci-fi short films on AI - Robots to scare ourselves. The first one is about babysitter robot who becomes so obsessed of the child that murders the murder. The second one is on the iMom - Mom robot.





Friday, 22 March 2019

Memorabilia 2018-19


Memorabilia 2018-19

From the desk of Head of the Department

The Memorabilia 2018-19 reminds the sense of an ending. Julian Barnes has rightly said that the sense of an ending is one of the most curious senses. There are ‘senses’ which are very crucial for human beings. The senses like ‘common-sense’ is necessary to understand worldly affairs when our academic sense fails to unlock the enigmatic life. Similarly, ‘civic-sense’ makes us responsible and accountable citizens of the democracy. Likewise, ‘academic-sense’ guides us in using lessons learned in academia at right time and right place. Unlike these senses, political senses is not much valued and talked about. However, for the citizens who are eligible for casting their votes in democracy, this sense is as inevitable as any other. Bertolt Brecht has equated this with literacy and told very boldly that the worst illiterate is the political illiterate. s/he hears nothing, sees nothing, takes no part in political life . . . and does not seem to know that all citizens life depends on political decisions. Among all these senses, it is ‘historical sense’ which makes a huge difference. In T.S. Eliot’s words - the historical sense involves a perception, not only of the pastness of the past, but of its presence. The historical sense will help in better perception of zeitgeist of our time and space. It is this sense which differentiates people from sheople (sheep + people). We, at Department of English, while teaching English studies, makes an attempt to see that students develop these senses and become more sensible towards their personal lives as well as our society.
Coming back to the sense of an ending, the most curious sense of all these high-profile senses. When we get towards the end of two years, when a batch full of students are passing out – some curious feelings engulf and numbs our senses. No! It is not this Keatsianmy heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains’ – sort of sense of an ending. It means an end of any likelihood of change in the life. We work very hard and we expect a sort of progressive, positive, and constructive metamorphosis among those with whom we so passionately get involved. At the end of the year, the sense of an ending engulfs.
This Memorabilia 2018-19 is nothing but a sort of pensive of all those wonderful memories. It is like that Time-Turner device made by Ministry of Magic in J K Rowling’s Potter series. It is like the Time Machine of H. G. Wells. Turning pages of this memory-booklet is like unwinding the time in Time-Turner or travelling back in the Time Machine.
 All credit for this sort of meticulous record keeping goes to the Documentation Committee. It is really tough task. However, social media like Facebook is helping a lot to them in keeping records. It was always satisfying to read their posts in the happenings with an interesting write-up and a few photos. It is even more satisfying to revisit all those ‘happenings’ in this Memorabilia, again.
When I look back at the quality of students who are passing out, I see that these students were a bit quicker in adapting to technology than the previous batches. These students have surprised me on several occasions. From presenting their work in digital form to working on online surveys, or preparing certificates with mail-merge feature, or collecting data, or working in collaboration, or even this Memorabilia itself . . . . With almost professional precision, they used assistive technology. I hope the digital skills they have acquired and honed are going to be very vital in their future career and life.
Another unique feature perceived in this batch was their courage and confidence to speak-up and voice their happiness as well as angst and anxiety. Many of them wrote and some even published good poems, short stories, social media posts and blogs.

This was the batch on which we worked very hard to improve their English language. Not that these students were very poor in English language. They possessed normal English language skills which is common with all other batches. However, this time we were able to spare time for remedial classes, answer-writing workshops and academic writing workshops. In a way, this batch is fortunate to have many sessions of improving academic English writing skills. Some of them have learned it and displayed the improvement in their writings also.

It is a tradition that most of the activities are carried out by students of the Department. They are divided in various committees and those willing to lead become natural leaders. Every year, apart from regular co-curricular activities, some unique activities are also planned by these committee members. This year,

  •  ·         the Library committee planned a visit of Barton Library. This library is historically very important site for all book lovers,
  •  ·         the ICT committee organised workshop for P.G. students of all departments and exposed them to basic digital tools. The entire workshop was conducted by senior students and even the resource persons were members of ICT committee,
  •  ·         the Film Screening committee organised watching Hindi film Uri – The Surgical Strike in the cinema theatre,
  •  ·         the Art and Creativity committee organised various competitions on the occasion of Guru Purnima and made digital display of short stories, paintings, poems, photographs and rangoli and winners were selected by online public voting system,
  •  ·         the Celebration committee celebrated International Day of Yoga at Department, the credit of maximum participation in Sports and Adventure activities goes to the Sports and Recreation committee,
  • ·         the Gardening committee carried out projects to support Swacch Bharat / Clean India campaign,
  • ·         the Daily Schedule committee organised some very courageous debates on challenging issues like Pulwama Terror Attack, Adultery Act section 497 of  IPC, LGBT Act section 377 of IPC.


All members of the committee from Semester 4 and 2 are appreciated for these unique activities. We know that all humans are not similar. Neither are we born to do similar things in life, nor are we supposed to think alike. We all are unique and the uniqueness shall be maintained, irrespective of what-so-ever-life offers us. In spite of this, the fact remains that this rule does not apply to leaders. The leaders are supposed to be different from other people. The uniqueness of leaders lies in the fact that they are ready to merge and assimilate with one and all. That’s the sure way to lead the people. 




There is a famous quote ascribed to Bruce Lee: Be like water making its way through cracks. Do not be assertive, but adjust to the object, and you shall find a way around or through it. If nothing within you stays rigid, outward things will disclose themselves.  Empty your mind, be formless. Shapeless, like water. If you put water into a cup, it becomes the cup. You put water into a bottle and it becomes the bottle. You put it in a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Now, water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend.” Leader are supposed to be like water. It is glad to see that without knowing all these things most of you have displayed these characteristics. Be with it. In future, you may unlearn many things and relearn also. But do not unlearn these characteristics of leadership which you have acquired by being so – water like! 

Lastly, keep reading literature. Great readers make for great leaders! Reading literature ripens our maturity. The emotional, intelligence, spiritual, creativity, adversity, and physical quotients (EQ, IQ, SQ, CQ, AQ, PQ of literature students / readers are much higher and deeper than students of any other subjects / discipline. At the same time, I would like to suggest to watch as many films as you can. In this year, we have seen the rise of web streaming services. It has opened new vistas for acquiring all these quotients which altogether makes for literary quotients and literary sensibility. If one wants to put it in arithmetic equation, it shall have an integer of multiplication. 

So, it can be – LQ = IQ x EQ x SQ x CQ x AQ x PQ

In addition, L = B + eB + F + YT + WS +TV, wherein Literature is equal to books, eBooks, films, YouTube, Web Steaming and Television. 

Do not nurture bias against these mediums. Do not privilege one over the other. All are equally important for the acquisition of literary quotient.


Wish you all the best for your future career and life. Keep sharing your achievements with us. We will make anecdotes out of your achievements and turn you into role-models for upcoming batches of students.

-         Dilip Barad

The Memorabilia 2018-19



Monday, 28 January 2019

Country vs Nation-State: देश बनाम राष्ट्र : भगवत रावत : Bhagwat Rawat

*देश एक राग है - भगवत रावत*






इस बार छब्बीस जनवरी पर
मैं देश के नाम सन्देश देना चाहता था
राष्ट्र के नाम नहीं
देश के नाम
जानता हूँ ऐसे सन्देश केवल
राष्ट्रपति और प्रधानमंत्री समय समय पर देते रहे हैं
जो राष्ट्र के नाम प्रसारित किये जाते हैं
इन संदेशों की कोइ विवशता होगी
तभी तो उनकी भाषा ऐसी तयशुदा होती है की
उनमें कहीं कोई उतार-चढ़ाव नहीं होता
न कहीं मार्मिक स्पर्श
सुनता आ रहा हूँ ऐसे सन्देश और किसी का कोई एक
वाक्य भी ठीक से याद नहीं
मजेदार बात यहाँ है कि 'देशवासियों'-जैसे
आत्मीय संबोधनों से प्रारंभ होने वाले ये सन्देश
देश को भूलकर राष्ट्र-राष्ट्र कहते नहीं थकते
राष्ट्र की मजबूती, राष्ट्र की गरिमा
राष्ट्र की संप्रभुता, रार्ष्ट्रोत्थान जैसे विशेषण वाची
अलंकरणों से से मंडित
ये आत्ममुग्धता और आत्मश्लाघा
के उदाहरण बनकर रहा जाते हैं
मुझे कुछ समझ में नहीं आता
मेरी उलझन बढ़ती ही जाती है
कि देश के भीतर राष्ट्र है या राष्ट्र के भीतर देश
दोनों में कौन किससे छोटा, बड़ा
सर्वोपरि या गौण है
इस विवाद में न पड़ें तो भी
दोनों एक ही हैं यह मानने का मन नहीं करता
फिर भी सुविधा के लिए मान ही लें तो
देश का पर्याय राष्ट्र कैसे हो गया
अर्थात देश में सेंध लगाकर काबा राष्ट्र घुस आया
इसका पुख्ता कोई ना कोई कारण और इतिहास
होगा ही, परा मेरा कवी मन आज ताका
उसको स्वीकार नहीं कर पाया
और यदि इसका उलटा ही माना लें,
कि सबसे पुराना राष्ट्र ही है तो
हज़ारों सालों से कहाँ गायब हुआ पड़ा था
तत्सम शब्दावली की कहीं कहीं पोथियों- पुराणों के अलावा
सारी दुनिया का इतिहास
राष्ट्रों की कहानियां कौन सुनता-सुनाता है
अब आप ही बताइये
कि क्या कोई ठीक-ठीक बता सकता है कि कब
देश कि जगह राष्ट्र और राष्ट्र की जगह देश
कहा जा सकता है
हम देश का इतिहास और भूगोल पढ़ते-पढ़ाते हैं
सना सैंतालीस में हमारा देश आजाद हुआ था
मैं भारत देश का नागरिक हूँ
ऐसे सैकड़ों वाक्य पढ़ते पढ़ाते बीत गयी उम्र
जब-जब, जहां-जहां तक आँखें फैलाई
दूर दूर तक देश ही देश नजर आया
राष्ट्र कहीं दिखा नहीं
अपने-अपने घर-गाँव लौटते हैं लोग तो एक दूसरे से
यही कहते हैं कि वे अपने देश जा रहे हैं
वे अपने पशुओं-पक्षियों, खेतों-खलिहानों
नदियों-तालाबों, कुओं-बावडियों, पहाड़ों-जंगलों,
मैदानों-रेगिस्तानों,
बोली- बानियों, पहनावों-पोशाकों, खान-पान
रीति-रिवाज और नाच गानों से इतना प्यार करते हैं
किकुछ न होते हुए गाँठ में
भागे चले जाते हैं हज़ारों मेला ट्रेन में सफ़र करते
बीडी फूंकते हुए
वे नहीं जानते राष्ट्र-भक्त कैसे हुआ जाता है
आजादी की लड़ाई में हंसते-हँसते फांसी के फंदों पर
झूलने वाले देश-भक्ति के गीत गाते-गाते
शहीद हो जाते थे
ऊपर कही गही बातों में से देशा की जगह राष्ट्र रखकर
कोई बोलकर तो देखे
राष्ट्र-राष्ट्र कहते-कहते जुबान न लडखडाने लगे
तो मेरा नाम बदल देना
वहीं एक वाक्य में दस बार भी आये देश तो
मीठा ही लगेगा शहद की तरह
सुवासित-सुभाषित सा फैलता हुआ धीरे-धीरे
स्नेहित तरंगों की तरह बाहर से भीतर तक
भीतर से बाहर तक
स्वयं अपनी सीमाएं लांघता
सुगन्धित मंद-मंद पवन की तरह
सारी दुनिया को शीतल करता धीरे धीरे
सारी दुनिया का हिस्सा हो जाता है
पर आज पता नहीं क्यों बार-बार
यह शब्द एक भारी भरकम बनायी गयी ऐसी अस्वाभाविक
डरावनी आवाज लगता है जो सत्ता और शक्ति के
अहंकार में न जाने किसको
ललकारने के लिए उपजी है
अपना बिगुल खुद बजाती जिससे एक ही शब्द
ध्वनित होता सुनायी देता है
सावधान!
सावधान!
सावधान!
और कहाँ से कहाँ निकल गया
यह सही है कि मैं न देश का राष्ट्रपति हूँ
न प्रधानमंत्री, नाकोई सांसद, न विधायक
यहाँ तक कि किसी नगरपालिका का कोई
निर्वाचित सदस्य तक नहीं हूँ
सब मेरे ही कारण हैं
मैंने ही बनाया है उन्हें
तो इसी नागरिक अधिकार के साथ मेरा देश के नाम सन्देश
क्यों प्रसारित नहीं किया जा सकता
की स्वतन्त्र भारत न गढ़ पाने की कोई दबी-छिपी रह गयी
गुलाम मानसिकता
या परायों के तंत्र से मुक्त न हो पाए की कोई
विवशता
आप जो भी कहें
और आप पूरी तरह मुझे गलत भी साबित कर दें
और जो आप कर भी सकते हैं
कहाँ-कहाँ से पुरानो और पोथियों से प्रमाण


होश संभालने के बाद पिछले पचास वर्षों से
अव्वल तो कोई किसी का पर्याय नहीं होता
देश-देशान्तरों की मार्मिक कथाओं से भरा पडा है
हमारे जवान देश की सीमानों की रक्षा करते हैं
आज भी बड़े-बड़े शहरों से मेहनत-मजदूरी करके जब
वे सच्चे देश भक्त हैं
देश एक राग है
कितना भी पुराना और पवित्र रहा हो राष्ट्र शब्द का इतिहास
मैं देश के नाम सन्देश देने के बारे में कह रहा था
पर सभी ये कहते हैं कि ये जो अच्छे-बुरे जो भी हैं


ठिठुरता हुआ गणतंत्र
हरिशंकर परसाई 

चार बार मैं गणतंत्र-दिवस का जलसा दिल्ली में देख चुका हूँ। पाँचवीं बार देखने का साहस नहीं। आखिर यह क्या बात है कि हर बार जब मैं गणतंत्र-समारोह देखता, तब मौसम बड़ा क्रूर रहता। छब्बीस जनवरी के पहले ऊपर बर्फ पड़ जाती है। शीत-लहर आती है, बादल छा जाते हैं, बूँदाबाँदी होती है और सूर्य छिप जाता है। जैसे दिल्ली की अपनी कोई अर्थनीति नहीं है, वैसे ही अपना मौसम भी नहीं है। अर्थनीति जैसे डॉलर, पौंड, रुपया, अंतरराष्ट्रीय मुद्रा-कोष या भारत सहायता क्लब से तय होती है, वैसे ही दिल्ली का मौसम कश्मीर, सिक्किम, राजस्थान आदि तय करते हैं। इतना बेवकूफ भी नहीं कि मान लूँ, जिस साल मैं समारोह देखता हूँ, उसी साल ऐसा मौसम रहता है। हर साल देखने वाले बताते हैं कि हर गणतंत्र-दिवस पर मौसम ऐसा ही धूपहीन ठिठुरनवाला होता है। आखिर बात क्या है? रहस्य क्या है? जब कांग्रेस टूटी नहीं थी, तब मैंने एक कांग्रेस मंत्री से पूछा था कि यह क्या बात है कि हर गणतंत्र-दिवस को सूर्य छिपा रहता है? सूर्य की किरणों के तले हम उत्सव क्यों नहीं मना सकते? उन्होंने कहा - जरा धीरज रखिए। हम कोशिश में हैं कि सूर्य बाहर आ जाए। पर इतने बड़े सूर्य को बाहर निकालना आसान नहीं हैं। वक्त लगेगा। हमें सत्ता के कम से कम सौ वर्ष तो दीजिए। दिए। सूर्य को बाहर निकालने के लिए सौ वर्ष दिए, मगर हर साल उसका छोटा-मोटा कोना तो निकलता दिखना चाहिए। सूर्य कोई बच्चा तो है नहीं जो अंतरिक्ष की कोख में अटका है, जिसे आप आपरेशन करके एक दिन में निकाल देंगे। इधर जब कांग्रेस के दो हिस्से हो गए तब मैंने एक इंडिकेटी कांग्रेस से पूछा। उसने कहा - ‘हम हर बार सूर्य को बादलों से बाहर निकालने की कोशिश करते थे, पर हर बार सिंडीकेट वाले अड़ंगा डाल देते थे। अब हम वादा करते हैं कि अगले गणतंत्र दिवस पर सूर्य को निकालकर बताएँगे। एक सिंडीकेटी पास खड़ा सुन रहा था। वह बोल पड़ा - ‘यह लेडी (प्रधानमंत्री) कम्युनिस्टों के चक्कर में आ गई है। वही उसे उकसा रहे हैं कि सूर्य को निकालो। उन्हें उम्मीद है कि बादलों के पीछे से उनका प्यारा ‘लाल सूरज’ निकलेगा। हम कहते हैं कि सूर्य को निकालने की क्या जरूरत है? क्या बादलों को हटाने से काम नहीं चल सकता? मैं संसोपाई भाई से पूछ्ता हूँ। वह कहता है - ‘सूर्य गैर-कांग्रेसवाद पर अमल कर रहा है। उसने डाक्टर लोहिया के कहने पर हमारा पार्टी-फार्म दिया था। कांग्रेसी प्रधानमंत्री को सलामी लेते वह कैसे देख सकता है? किसी गैर-काँग्रेसी को प्रधानमंत्री बना दो, तो सूर्य क्या, उसके अच्छे भी निकल पड़ेंगे। जनसंघी भाई से भी पूछा। उसने कहा - ‘सूर्य सेक्युलर होता तो इस सरकार की परेड में निकल आता। इस सरकार से आशा मत करो कि भगवान अंशुमाली को निकाल सकेगी। हमारे राज्य में ही सूर्य निकलेगा। साम्यवादी ने मुझसे साफ कहा - ‘यह सब सी.आई.ए. का षडयंत्र है। सातवें बेड़े से बादल दिल्ली भेजे जाते हैं।’ स्वतंत्र पार्टी के नेता ने कहा - ‘रूस का पिछलग्गू बनने का और क्या नतीजा होगा? प्रसोपा भाई ने अनमने ढंग से कहा - ‘सवाल पेचीदा है। नेशनल कौंसिल की अगली बैठक में इसका फैसला होगा। तब बताऊँगा।’ राजाजी से मैं मिल न सका। मिलता, तो वह इसके सिवा क्या कहते कि इस राज में तारे निकलते हैं, यही गनीमत है।’ मैं इंतजार करूँगा, जब भी सूर्य निकले। स्वतंत्रता-दिवस भी तो भरी बरसात में होता है। अंग्रेज बहुत चालाक हैं। भरी बरसात में स्वतंत्र करके चले गए। उस कपटी प्रेमी की तरह भागे, जो प्रेमिका का छाता भी ले जाए। वह बेचारी भीगती बस-स्टैंड जाती है, तो उसे प्रेमी की नहीं, छाता-चोर की याद सताती है। स्वतंत्रता-दिवस भीगता है और गणतंत्र-दिवस ठिठुरता है। मैं ओवरकोट में हाथ डाले परेड देखता हूँ। प्रधानमंत्री किसी विदेशी मेहमान के साथ खुली गाड़ी में निकलती हैं। रेडियो टिप्पणीकार कहता है - ‘घोर करतल-ध्वनि हो रही है।’ मैं देख रहा हूँ, नहीं हो रही है। हम सब तो कोट में हाथ डाले बैठे हैं। बाहर निकालने का जी नहीं हो रहा है। हाथ अकड़ जाएँगे। लेकिन हम नहीं बजा रहे हैं, फिर भी तालियाँ बज रहीं हैं। मैदान में जमीन पर बैठे वे लोग बजा रहे हैं, जिनके पास हाथ गरमाने के लिए कोट नहीं है। लगता है, गणतंत्र ठिठुरते हुए हाथों की तालियों पर टिका है। गणतंत्र को उन्हीं हाथों की ताली मिलतीं हैं, जिनके मालिक के पास हाथ छिपाने के लिए गर्म कपड़ा नहीं है। पर कुछ लोग कहते हैं - ‘गरीबी मिटनी चाहिए।’ तभी दूसरे कहते हैं - ‘ऐसा कहने वाले प्रजातंत्र के लिए खतरा पैदा कर रहे हैं।’ गणतंत्र-समारोह में हर राज्य की झाँकी निकलती है। ये अपने राज्य का सही प्रतिनिधित्व नहीं करतीं। ‘सत्यमेव जयते’ हमारा मोटो है मगर झाँकियाँ झूठ बोलती हैं। इनमें विकास-कार्य, जनजीवन इतिहास आदि रहते हैं। असल में हर राज्य को उस विशिष्ट बात को यहाँ प्रदर्शित करना चाहिए जिसके कारण पिछले साल वह राज्य मशहूर हुआ। गुजरात की झाँकी में इस साल दंगे का दृश्य होना चाहिए, जलता हुआ घर और आग में झोंके जाते बच्चे। पिछले साल मैंने उम्मीद की थी कि आंध्र की झाँकी में हरिजन जलते हुए दिखाए जाएँगे। मगर ऐसा नहीं दिखा। यह कितना बड़ा झूठ है कि कोई राज्य दंगे के कारण अंतरराष्ट्रीय ख्याति पाए, लेकिन झाँकी सजाए लघु उद्योगों की। दंगे से अच्छा गृह-उद्योग तो इस देश में दूसरा है नहीं। मेरे मध्यप्रदेश ने दो साल पहले सत्य के नजदीक पहुँचने की कोशिश की थी। झाँकी में अकाल-राहत कार्य बतलाए गए थे। पर सत्य अधूरा रह गया था। मध्यप्रदेश उस साल राहत कार्यों के कारण नहीं, राहत-कार्यों में घपले के कारण मशहूर हुआ था। मेरा सुझाव माना जाता तो मैं झाँकी में झूठे मास्टर रोल भरते दिखाता, चुकारा करनेवाले का अँगूठा हजारों मूर्खों के नाम के आगे लगवाता। नेता, अफसर, ठेकेदारों के बीच लेन-देन का दृश्य दिखाता। उस झाँकी में वह बात नहीं आई। पिछले साल स्कूलों के ‘टाट-पट्टी कांड’ से हमारा राज्य मशहूर हुआ। मैं पिछले साल की झाँकी में यह दृश्य दिखाता - ‘मंत्री, अफसर वगैरह खड़े हैं और टाट-पट्टी खा रहे हैं। जो हाल झाँकियों का, वही घोषणाओं का। हर साल घोषणा की जाती है कि समाजवाद आ रहा है। पर अभी तक नहीं आया। कहाँ अटक गया? लगभग सभी दल समाजवाद लाने का दावा कर रहे हैं, लेकिन वह नहीं आ रहा। मैं एक सपना देखता हूँ। समाजवाद आ गया है और वह बस्ती के बाहर टीले पर खड़ा है। बस्ती के लोग आरती सजाकर उसका स्वागत करने को तैयार खड़े हैं। पर टीले को घेरे खड़े हैं कई समाजवादी। उनमें से हरेक लोगों से कहकर आया है कि समाजवाद को हाथ पकड़कर मैं ही लाऊँगा। समाजवाद टीले से चिल्लाता है - ‘मुझे बस्ती में ले चलो।’ मगर टीले को घेरे समाजवादी कहते हैं - ‘पहले यह तय होगा कि कौन तेरा हाथ पकड़कर ले जाएगा।’ समाजवाद की घेराबंदी है। संसोपा-प्रसोपावाले जनतांत्रिक समाजवादी हैं, पीपुल्स डेमोक्रेसी और नेशनल डेमोक्रेसीवाले समाजवादी हैं। क्रांतिकारी समाजवादी हैं। हरेक समाजवाद का हाथ पकड़कर उसे बस्ती में ले जाकर लोगों से कहना चाहता है - ‘लो, मैं समाजवाद ले आया।’ समाजवाद परेशान है। उधर जनता भी परेशान है। समाजवाद आने को तैयार खड़ा है, मगर समाजवादियों में आपस में धौल-धप्पा हो रहा है। समाजवाद एक तरफ उतरना चाहता है कि उस पर पत्थर पड़ने लगते हैं। ‘खबरदार, उधर से मत जाना!’ एक समाजवादी उसका एक हाथ पकड़ता है, तो दूसरा हाथ पकड़कर खींचता है। तब बाकी समाजवादी छीना-झपटी करके हाथ छुड़ा देते हैं। लहू-लुहान समाजवाद टीले पर खड़ा है। इस देश में जो जिसके लिए प्रतिबद्ध है, वही उसे नष्ट कर रहा है। लेखकीय स्वतंत्रता के लिए प्रतिबद्ध लोग ही लेखक की स्वतंत्रता छीन रहे हैं। सहकारिता के लिए प्रतिबद्ध इस आंदोलन के लोग ही सहकारिता को नष्ट कर रहे हैं। सहकारिता तो एक स्पिरिट है। सब मिलकर सहकारितापूर्वक खाने लगते हैं और आंदोलन को नष्ट कर देते हैं। समाजवाद को समाजवादी ही रोके हुए हैं। यों प्रधानमंत्री ने घोषणा कर दी है कि अब समाजवाद आ ही रहा है। मैं एक कल्पना कर रहा हूँ। दिल्ली में फरमान जारी हो जाएगा - ‘समाजवाद सारे देश के दौरे पर निकल रहा है। उसे सब जगह पहुँचाया जाए। उसके स्वागत और सुरक्षा का पूरा बंदोबस्त किया जाए। एक सचिव दूसरे सचिव से कहेगा - ‘लो, ये एक और वी.आई.पी. आ रहे हैं। अब इनका इंतजाम करो। नाक में दम है।’ कलेक्टरों को हुक्म चला जाएगा। कलेक्टर एस.डी.ओ. को लिखेगा, एस.डी.ओ. तहसीलदार को। पुलिस-दफ्तरों में फरमान पहुँचेंगे, समाजवाद की सुरक्षा की तैयारी करो। दफ्तरों में बड़े बाबू छोटे बाबू से कहेंगे - ‘काहे हो तिवारी बाबू, एक कोई समाजवाद वाला कागज आया था न! जरा निकालो!’ तिवारी बाबू कागज निकालकर देंगे। बड़े बाबू फिर से कहेंगे - ‘अरे वह समाजवाद तो परसों ही निकल गया। कोई लेने नहीं गया स्टेशन। तिवारी बाबू, तुम कागज दबाकर रख लेते हो। बड़ी खराब आदत है तुम्हारी।’ तमाम अफसर लोग चीफ-सेक्रेटरी से कहेंगे - ‘सर, समाजवाद बाद में नहीं आ सकता? बात यह है कि हम उसकी सुरक्षा का इंतजाम नहीं कर सकेंगे। पूरा फोर्स दंगे से निपटने में लगा है।’ मुख्य सचिव दिल्ली लिख देगा - ‘हम समाजवाद की सुरक्षा का इंतजाम करने में असमर्थ हैं। उसका आना अभी मुल्तवी किया जाए।’ जिस शासन-व्यवस्था में समाजवाद के आगमन के कागज दब जाएँ और जो उसकी सुरक्षा की व्यवस्था न करे, उसके भरोसे समाजवाद लाना है तो ले आओ। मुझे खास ऐतराज भी नहीं है। जनता के द्वारा न आकर अगर समाजवाद दफ्तरों के द्वारा आ गया तो एक ऐतिहासिक घटना हो जाएगी।

Sunday, 4 November 2018

Raja Rao - Kanthapura - Bharat Ek Khoj

Raja Rao's Kanthapura - Televised by Shyam Benegal

Bharat Ek Khoj—The Discovery of India A Production of Doordarshan, the Government of India’s Public Service Broadcaster Episode 49: And Gandhi Came, Part I With Shabana Azmi as Rangamma, Om Puri as Patel Range Gowda, Ila Arun as Gangamma, Savita Bajaj as Venkamma, Pallavi Joshi as Ratna, Virendra Saxena as Rachanna, Piyush Mishra as Murthy, Irfan Khan as Bade Khan, Sudhir Kulkarni as Bhatt, and Bhavana Mukativala as Radhamma. Playback by Chandrakant Kale, Ranjana Joglekar, Jolly Mukherjee, Pankaj Mitra, Anand Kumar, and Shobha Joshi Excerpts from Kanthapura by Raja Rao. Nehru notes that when World War I started, politics in India was at a low ebb. This was chiefly because of the split in the Congress between two sections, the radicals and the moderates, and also because of wartime restrictions and regulations. And then Gandhi came. He was like a powerful current of fresh air that made Indians stretch themselves and take deep breaths. He seemed to emerge from the millions of India, speaking their language and incessantly drawing attention to their appalling condition. The sprawling photographs of Gandhi illustrate how he entered the Congress and made it a democratic, mass organisation. The peasants rolled in and the Congress assumed the look of a vast agrarian organ with a strong sprinkling of the middle class. Industrial workers too came in as individuals. The ensuing drama draws from the episodes of Raja Rao’s novel, Kanthapura, that is embedded in those traumatic times. Even the traditional Harikatha gatherings are redolent with the consciousness that Mahatma Gandhi has newly instilled. Gandhi is depicted as the new incarnation of Vishnu who has come to rid the British oppression. There is resistance to provide accommodation to the newly-posted village-official, symptomatic of the troubled times. The word spreads on the efficacy of spinning thread daily by the Charkha (spinning wheel) and the message of assimilating the Achhoots (the untouchables) is driven in against the prevailing notions of community discrimination. Like many a village in India, Kanthapura is agog with Gandhian spirit. The protagonists Kashinath and Murthy, and even the village women Rangamma and Ratna, are involved in lively debates on the socio-political issues, in the face of the police antagonism. Murthy, the staunch Gandhian, undertakes a 3-day fast for self-purification, barring a daily drink of three glasses of water. The villagers, including the Patel, commiserate with him, but Murthy, drawing his inspiration from Gandhi’s many fasts, is adamant. We hear Gandhi’s favourite Ramdhun for congregational singing: Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram… Gandhi’s ideas of truth, love, divinity and non-violence are animatedly discussed, alongside the need for daily spinning of cotton yarn as an act of self- reliance for weaving hand-spun clothes. Amidst the spreading ethos of Charkha distribution, Murthy is arrested. Commenting on such far-reaching impact of Gandhi on the village folks, Nehru avers that this astonishingly vital man, full of self-confidence and an unusual kind of power, standing for equality and freedom of each individual but measuring all this in terms of the poorest, fascinated the masses of India and attracted them like a magnet. Producer Doordarshan Language Hindi Credits Uploaded by Public.Resource.Org Based on Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discovery of India With Roshan Seth as Jawaharlal Nehru Om Puri as the Narrator Produced and Directed by Shyam Benegal Chief Assistant Director was Mandeep Kakkar Executive Producer Raj Plus Script by Shama Zaldi and Sunil Shanbag A production of Doordarshan




 Part 2
Nehru notes that against the all-pervading fear amongst Indian people of the British Raj, Gandhi’s quiet and determined voice was raised, ‘Be not afraid’. Suddenly, the black pall of fear was lifted from the people’s shoulders. To the ordinary village folks, it made all the difference. The song picks up the refrain that the Congress would hereafter rule in the rural front and initiate Rama Raj by abolishing Ravana Raj of the aliens. While Murthy declines to appoint an advocate to plead for him, Rangamma’s visit to the town to look for a defence lawyer is in vain. She returns with the news that Murthy has been sentenced to a three-month imprisonment. Rangamma and Ratna now pick up the cudgel and begin organising the female front of volunteers after the model of Sarojini Naidu, Annie Besant and Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay. They resolve not to fight back, even if beaten. There are mild protestations from the ilk of Narayan not to allow their female folk go in for public demonstrations. News comes that Murthy is released, but the nightmare is not over. The tidings of the Dundee March and Salt Satyagraha trickle in to enthuse the villagers no end. People decide to observe Maun (silence) to strengthen the Congress. There is tumultuous singing of another favourite Bhajan of Gandhi, by Narsinh Mehta: Vaishnavajanato Tene Kahiye… Further news trickles in that the police has lathi-charged the corps of volunteers at Mahatma’s prayer meeting. This only steels the people’s resolve not to pay tax and offer passive resistance. A new phenomenon is women taking out processions and picketing in front of liquor-shops to stop their men folk from alcoholism. The tax-evasion campaign takes an ugly turn, with the police auctioning off the landed property of the defaulters in Kanthapura. Women, under the guidance of the hiding men, put up resistance, but the police open indiscriminate fire killing many and injuring several. There is chaos now from a failed resistance, with people leaving Kanthapura en masse for Kashipura near Mysore and leaders like Murthy, Rangamma and Ratna imprisoned for six months. There is also news trickling in that at the apex, Nehru and Gandhi do not quite agree on non-violence. Nehru observes that, by 1930, Gandhi seemed, to his countrymen, able to link the past with the future and to make the present appear as a stepping-stone to the future of life and hope. Thus he affected a vast psychological revolution not only among those who followed his lead, but also among his opponents and those neutrals who were still ambivalent. Producer Doordarshan Language Hindi Credits Uploaded by Public.Resource.Org Based on Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discovery of India With Roshan Seth as Jawaharlal Nehru Om Puri as the Narrator Produced and Directed by Shyam Benegal Chief Assistant Director was Mandeep Kakkar Executive Producer Raj Plus Script by Shama Zaldi and Sunil Shanbag A production of Doordarshan